4 Theories about the Origin of the Universe

According to steady state theory, new matter is continuously created as the universe expands

0
84

The evolution of science shows that the human beings are always fascinated by this nature. They started thinking about this nature and the sky. But they could not understand the secrets of this nature .This fire of imagination about this nature and its creation divided their thinking paths in to several schools of thoughts. Some of the thoughts are baseless, but ruled their intellect by socially strong people. Thus the concept of GOD created, theology developed and has become strong even now, in the name of religion. In the same way some ‘school of thoughts’ developed with some abstract proofs and convinced majority of people. Thus science and mathematics developed to understand the nature. Now they become so strong that the experimental verification only the convincing factor for any thought. Copernicus & Kepler are the best known examples of this revolutionary thinking about nature.

Scientists like Newton, Galileo, Lorenz etc., paved the path for the part of physics which elaborated the understanding of this nature and universe.

BIG-BANG THEORY:

Image: NASA

It was originated by Georges Lemaître a Belgian astronomer. In the year 1905 Einstein introduced special theory of relativity and in the year 1910 he introduced General Theory of Relativity which explains the field equations and space time generalization . This is the basic idea that led Lemaitre to propose this theory. around 1927. Afterwards, this theory was substantiated by” Hubble’s expanding universe theory “and Eddington & Friedmann’s ideas.

This theory says that at a point where the time(about 13.5 billion years ago)started is a singularity. This is the starting point of universe where explosion occurred to a cosmic egg ,nothing but the total matter of the universe in super dense state. After explosion, the matter of the universe started expansion as explained by Hubble’s theory of expanding universe. Expansion of universe is proved experimentally by astronomers.

STEADY STATE THEORY:

Image: NASA

The steady state model was developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyel, Thomas Gold & Herman Bondi as an opposive thought to the Big Bang theory. According to steady state theory, new matter is continuously created as the universe expands. It says that new matter will be created continuously to compensate the newly created matter. The density of the matter will be constant always.

The experimental proof for cosmic background radiation in the year 1964 attracted almost all cosmologists to support BIG-BANG theory.

PULSATING UNIVERSE THEORY:

This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the planetary nebula NGC 2452, located in the southern constellation of Puppis. The blue haze across the frame is what remains of a star like our Sun after it has depleted all its fuel. When this happens, the core of the star becomes unstable and releases huge numbers of incredibly energetic particles that blow the star’s atmosphere away into space. At the centre of this blue cloud lies what remains of the nebula’s progenitor star. This cool, dim, and extremely dense star is actually a pulsating white dwarf, meaning that its brightness varies over time as gravity causes waves that pulse throughout the small star’s body. NGC 2452 was discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1847. He initially defined it as “an object whose nature I cannot make out. It is certainly not a star, nor a close double star […] I should call it an oblong planetary nebula”. To early observers like Herschel with their smaller telescopes, planetary nebulae resembled gaseous planets, and so were named accordingly. The name has stuck, although modern telescopes like Hubble have made it clear that these objects are not planets at all, but the outer layers of dying stars being thrown off into space. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestants Luca Limatola and Budeanu Cosmin Mirel.
It is a little modification to BIG-BANG model. According to this theory, the universe started with a big bang and the expansion will be decelerated gradually because of gravitational force of the matter of the universe. This deceleration of expansion leads to halt of expansion and will start contraction due to the force of gravity. Again , this end of contraction is a beginning of another BIG –BANG. Thus it follows a cyclic process and known as pulsating universe theory.

HEART OF GOD MODEL OF THE UNIVERSE.

Wikipedia Commons

‘Double Relativity Effect’ is introduced in the year 2005 and abstracted in proceedings(ICR-2005; SR-1(5),page-17) of International Conference on Relativity(ICR-2005), held at Amravathi, INDIA. Further analysis of space time with expanding universe theory and with the application of Double Relativity. ‘Film theory of Universe ‘ has been introduced. ‘Film theory of the Universe’ is a model of space time and path of each and every particle of this expanding universe with time. It says that the universe is made up of several films which will change in a tiny fraction of a second so that the continuity will be maintained in this universe. All the events of this universe are the consequence of this change of film just like a movie in which 16 films will change for every second.

With the help of this ‘Film theory ‘and ‘Double theory of Relativity’ ,four dimensional space time has been defined as a three-dimensional fluid with certain density. The visible matter in this universe is floating on the surface of that fluid. The two dimensional surface area of the three dimensional ‘space -time fluid’ is the  three-dimensional space of this universe.

With the help of above concepts —

The “The HEART OF THE GOD model of the universe’ has been introduced – It elaborated concepts of space and time much more profoundly. Thus it avoided the singularity problem of BIG-BANG Theory and agreed with the Big Bang in such a way big bang is a part of the ‘steady state theory’.

The model says-

“Four dimensional ‘space- time’, is like a three-dimensional fluid of this universe. It is in almost spherical shape. It exists as it is. It has no beginning or no ending. It fluctuates for every 10^-44 sec. In each fluctuation, it creates matter. It pumps the matter into this universe. It is similar to a human heart which fluctuates 72 times every minute to pump the blood.So this is called as “HEART OF THE GOD” The density of the matter it pumps is constant. The calculation of density of matter distributed is almost equal to the results of ‘steady state theory’. According to this theory, the matter distribution is in order of 10^-42 kg/cum/sec. This model is still waiting for acceptance from scientific community.

Source by SIVA PRASAD KODUKULA

Loading...