Alcohol is a colorless impulsive combustible liquid, synthesized by fermentation of starches and sugars. The chemical formula of alcohol is C2H5OH, and it is also term as ethanol, ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol and is extensively used, both in pure and denatured forms as a solvent, cleaning solutions, in drugs, explosives, and exhilarating beverages. In other words, alcohol is any form of hydroxyl compounds and is the simplest derivatives of the saturated hydrocarbons of CnH2n+1OH general formula, including ethanol and methanol.
Alcohol is the class of organic compounds which have one or additional hydroxyl groups (-OH) appended to one or other more carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain. Representing the number of supplementary substituent groups on a carbon atom by R, alcohol is categorized as primary alcohol (RCH2OH), secondary alcohol (R2CHOH), or tertiary alcohol (R3COH). Several alcohols are found in nature and are important intermediates in the synthesis of further compounds due to the distinctive chemical reactions of hydroxyl groups of the alcohol.
Some of the chemical properties of alcohol include that the primary alcohols give up aldehydes on oxidation and the ketones by the secondary alcohols and the tertiary alcohols break down. On reaction with carboxylic acids esters are produced that can be converted to ethers as well as olefins. Some of the worth mentioning products of such reactions are detergents, fats, emulsifiers, waxes, emollients, plasticizers, lubricants, and spraying agents. Grain alcohol or Ethanol and wood alcohol or methanol are the best alcohols containing only one hydroxyl group. Ethylene glycol and antifreeze are the glycols having two hydroxyl groups and three in glycerol, and three or other in polyols.
Alcohols normally have a smell that dangles in nasal passages and the alcoholic beverages are consuming by the humans which are ethanol form. The man is consuming alcoholic beverages for different hygienic, religious, dietary, medicinal, and recreational purposes. Alcohol consumption is beneficial if taken in little amount and in proper time but if people start consuming it frequently and becoming an addiction is very harmful to health.
Intoxication or addiction on alcoholic beverages lead to acute respiratory malfunction or death as well as chronic utilization has medical consequences. Other alcoholic beverages produce more toxins and require longer duration in metabolizing in the body. The worst effect of alcoholic beverages is in the case of the wood alcohol or methanol which can be oxidized by an enzyme in the liver called alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes forming poisonous formaldehyde resulting to blindness or fatality.
Administration of ethanol is the only solution to prevent and treat formaldehyde toxicity on methanol consumption but all people are not aware of the fact. Ethanol acts as substrate preventing methanol from binding to alcohol dehydrogenase. Alcohol is usually taken in social occasions like a party or meal and on such occasions, people mix with some amount of water to avoid overindulging.
At the same time, people undergoing weight loss treat must refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages as it contains a soaring concentration of detrimental sugars and bare calories and alcohol consumption generally drives to compromise one’s habits, that might disturb the control over certain foods. Therefore the alcoholic beverage consumers must always try to stick on self-control and restraint from over consumption.