It refers to inflammation often of the sinuses that occurs with a viral, bacterial or fungal infection, especially in the nasal, frontal and maxillary sinuses. As a result, the lining of these sinuses become inflamed and painful.
When the paranasal sinus is healthy do not contain germs and bacteria, in these cases is considered that there is no sinus infection, so the mucus can drain out and air flows freely. The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull that are lined with mucous membrane
The primary cause that leads to sinusitis is the obstruction of the sinus openings. When the sinus openings remain blocked or too much mucus builds up, blood circulation and ventilation of the sinus cavity is smaller, causing it to easily multiply bacteria and other germs. The infection can be acute if symptoms remain up to 4 weeks, subacute if symptoms remain for 4 to 12 weeks and chronic if symptoms remain for 3 months or more. The most common causes are bacteria, although viral etiologies and rarely fungal also produce sinusitis.
Usually the bacterial infection in the sinuses that results from infection of upper respiratory causes acute sinusitis. Prolonged swelling and inflammation of the sinuses can be caused by bacteria or fungus causing chronic sinusitis.
Situations which may have a sinus infection:
• Due to an abnormal condition, the tiny hairs (cilia) in the paranasal sinuses, which help move mucus out, do not function properly.
• The opening of the paranasal sinuses can become blocked or too much mucus is produced due to colds and allergies
• the opening of the paranasal sinuses may be blocked due to a deviated nasal septum, nasal bone spur or nasal polyps
Factors that can increase your risk or your child have sinusitis:
• large adenoids
• Changes in altitude (flying or diving)
• Allergic rhinitis or hay fever
• Cystic Fibrosis
• Child Care
• Dental infections (rare)
• an immune system weakened by HIV or chemotherapy
In the adult, the classic symptoms of acute sinusitis usually follow a cold are not improving or one that worsens after 5 to 7 days of symptoms. Symptoms include:
• mucopurulent discharge
• A cough, often worse at night
• Epistaxis (nosebleeds)
• Bad breath or hyposmia (loss of sense of smell)
• Fatigue and general ill feeling
• decreased taste sensitivity
• a headache: pressure-like pain, pain behind the eyes, toothache, or facial tenderness
• Stuffy or a runny nose
• Pain on chewing and hoarseness
• A sore throat and postnasal drip
The symptoms of acute sinusitis are the same as chronic sinusitis, but the latter tend to be milder and last longer than 12 weeks.
The symptoms of sinusitis in children include:
• Colds or respiratory illness that has been improving and then begins to worsen
• High fever, runny nose along with dark, for at least 3 days
• Nasal discharge, with or without a cough that has been present for more than 10 days and not improving
Adult Chronic sinusitis
• Usually purulent postnasal discharge, nasal congestion, and headaches.
• Other symptoms include a cough, runny nose, and chronic halitosis.
• The patient breathes through the mouth and nasal speech is.
• The intense facial pain
• In some cases, patients have no symptoms.
• The pain is intense, focused on the affected sinus. Frontal sinusitis causes pain over the eyes, pain worse in the morning. When the maxillary sinuses are affected, the pain is located on the cheeks, often occurs intermittently, and may worsen when bending or movement of the head.
• As children have underdeveloped sinus, sinusitis is uncommon in young children
• They tend to get ear infections
• When not yet known antibiotics, the infection could spread from reaching the mucous membrane of the sinuses into the bone, and even to the brain, causing meningitis or brain abscess, in the present circumstances no longer occur.