Stroke is a foremost cause of adult disability globally and the second highest cause of death in the world. One in five stroke sufferers dies and another third are left with lasting handicaps. The majority of strokes is ischemic, which means that blood flow to the brain is disrupted due to a blood clot. When this passes, different cell types in the brain are starved of vital nutrients and oxygen. Blood flow to the mind is restored very quickly during a transient ischemic attack, but brain cells will start to fail if the suspension lasts for minutes, resulting in a core zone of dying tissue called an infarct. Risk factors for stroke include high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, diabetes, artery narrowing, high cholesterol, age, and lifestyle factors (exercise, diet, and alcohol). Preventive steps include food intake low in fat and sodium, controlling blood pressure and alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Stoke treatment is based on methods that restore the flow of blood to the head, such as clot-busting enzymes, surgery, and drugs for thinning blood, stopping clots and protecting nerve cells. Death and disability are common consequences of stroke because current stroke treatment is not remedial and the window of opportunity to manage treatments that restore blood flow is very brusque.
Two major strategies strengthen the exploration of stem cells as possible therapies for stroke treatment. The first is endogenous (within the body) repaired. The point of endogenous repair is to induce stem cells that are already resident in the brain and other portions of the physical structure to mend damaged tissue. The second approach is exogenous (outside the body) transplantation where stem cells are harvested, purified and then raw or completely mature cells to put back into patients. In fact, using stem cells to replace brain cells lost during the stroke is a long-term objective because many different types of cells in the brain are damaged, and transplanted cells will need to integrate and reinstate neural pathways that restore function to injured areas. Scientists anticipate that it will require at least 2-5 years to determine if stem cell therapy for stroke can significantly better the outcome for stroke victims. In the interim, stem cell therapy for stroke may be utilized to widen the window of opportunity for using drugs that rescue ischemic tissue, limit infarct dimension, break apart clots, and reduce inflammation or damage to the brain that sometimes occurs when blood flow is reestablished.
Stem cell therapy for stroke unfolding along a few different avenues and some of the successful results are being transformed into clinical trials. The majority of these clinical trials using bone marrow stem cells, adipose stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. So far, we have seen encouraging results from studies in mice, where they were able to regain brain functioning following an injury to the brain. Further clinical trials are also providing preliminary proof of the safety and potential effectiveness of stroke treatment with significant clinical changes in patients. Advances, Noida, designed a proof-of-concept study for stroke treatment using patient’s own stem cells to help the recovery from severe ischemic stroke. The outcome of the study reported that stem cell therapy for stroke is feasible and appears to be safe in the long run.